A heuristic technique, or a heuristic (/hjʊəˈrɪstɪk/; ‘I find, discover’), is any approach to problem solving or self-discovery that employs a practical method that is not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, or rational, but is nevertheless sufficient for reaching an immediate, short-term goal or approximation. Where finding an optimal solution is impossible or impractical, heuristic methods can be used to speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution. Heuristics can be mental shortcuts that ease the cognitive load of making a decision. They are often referred to as ‘rules of thumb’ or ‘educated guesses’.(Wikipedia)
A common heuristic in the marines is “capture the high ground, stay in touch, and keep moving”.