Sense-Making 101 Knowledge Base

Logical Fallacies

A logical fallacy is a flaw in reasoning that undermines the validity of an argument. According to Wikipedia, fallacies “can be classified by their structure (formal fallacies) or content (informal fallacies). Informal fallacies, the larger group, may then be subdivided into categories such as improper presumption, faulty generalization, error in assigning causation, and relevance, among others.”

Fallacies are different than cognitive biases. Fallacies are errors in reason and logic. Cognitive biases are the inclination to mistakes in cognition that are the result of innate predisposition and heuristics.

Fallacies are often employed by politicians and the media to further their agenda. It is important to be able to recognize when fallacies are used, spot the shoddy premises, and challenge the conclusions.

One of the best sources for information on fallacies is at Their signature graphic is below and they have a great logical fallacy deck available for sale on their website.

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